Should Catholics Attend Non-denominational or Ecumenical Bible Studies?

by Steve Ray on August 26, 2019

Every day, Catholics are invited by coworkers, neighbors, and even family members to “ecumenical” Bible studies. Should they go? Certainly all of us would benefit from more study of Scripture, but as someone who has been a part of a number of Protestant Bible studies—I’ve even taught them—I discourage Catholics from attending them because of the foundational premises and principles in operation at these studies.

Protestants are delighted to have Catholics attend their Bible studies, but it is often not because they want to hear and discuss the Catholic perspective on Scritpure. Instead, they see it as an opportunity to bring them to the “true Gospel”—to evangelize them, to get them saved.

In many cases, though certainly not all, the non-denominational Bible study is the Trojan Horse that infiltrates the Catholic’s mind and succeeds in drawing him away from the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church—to join a Protestant group. Most of us have a family member or friend who has been affected in this way.

An unwary Catholic who steps into the Protestant Bible study usually does so with no intention of leaving the Catholic Church. They just want to study the Bible. The Catholic usually has a hard time finding a good and welcoming Bible study in Catholic circles—but this is changing.

First, while the Bible study may call itself “non-denominational,” Catholics and Orthodox are not usually included under this umbrella. While they may be invited, you’ll rarely find them in leadership.

Protestants think of themselves as people of the Book, not hampered by human tradition. They think of Catholics as, at best, followers of traditions for whom the Bible is secondary.

That is a huge misconception: Protestants are also people of tradition. No one reads the Bible objectively. People who claim to “just read the Bible” really read it through the eyes of a tradition they’ve already accepted, whether that be Fundamentalist, Calvinist, Pentecostal, Baptist or one of many others. Everyone depends upon tradition, but not everyone recognizes it.

“Bible Christians,” based on their tradition, study the Bible with these premises:

  • There is no binding authority but the Bible alone.
  • There is no official binding interpretation or interpreter.
  • The Bible is perspicuous (i.e., easy to understand) and can be interpreted and understood by anyone.
  • An individual can and should read the Bible and interpret it for himself.

Catholics, based on their Tradition, study the Bible with different premises:

  • The authority of the apostles and the Church preceded the Bible, and the Tradition of the Church is an equally infallible authority (2 Thess. 2:15; CCC 80–83). The Bible is part of the apostolic Tradition.
  • The authoritative interpretation of the Bible is the prerogative of the Catholic Church (1 Tim. 3:15; Matt. 18:17; CCC 85-88).
  • The Bible is not always easy to understand (2 Pet. 3:15-16) and needs to be understood within its historical and contextual framework and interpreted within the community to which it belongs.
  • Individuals can and should read the Bible and interpret it for themselves—but within the framework of the Church’s authoritative teaching and not based on their own private interpretation (2 Pet 1:20-21).

These basic differences place the Catholic and Protestant worlds apart even though they are opening the pages of the same book and accepting it as an authoritative revelation from God. The Catholic position is biblical and has been espoused from the first days of the Church. The Protestant position is unbiblical and is of recent origin. The Catholic is in full continuity with historical Christianity; Protestants are in discontinuity.

Catholics attending a non-denominational Bible study need to be aware of these differences and be ready not only to filter out false conclusions but also to guard themselves against the false underlying assumptions (e.g., that everything has to be found and proven explicitly in the Bible).

Catholics who are unaware often begin to adopt a Protestant mentality without knowing they are doing so, gradually learning to suspect the Catholic Church and trying to prove everything from the Bible.

Let’s Take Just One Example: Baptism

But what difference do these premises make? Let’s take the example of 1 Peter 3:18-21:

For Christ also died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit; in which he went and preached to the spirits in prison, who formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water. Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a clear conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Notice the words in italics. What does it say? To Catholics it makes perfect sense because Christians have always taught (until the Reformation) that baptism is essential for salvation. As Catholics, we can draw from a wealth of other biblical and patristic passages that consistently and continuously teach a seamless garment of doctrine—the constant teaching of the Church, of all Christians.

A few examples:

Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.” (John 3:5)

This has always been understood to mean water baptism, until descendants of the Reformation denied it and came up with new interpretations, such as that the water refers to the water in the womb, the word of God, or even a synonym for the Spirit (as in “water, even the Spirit”). There is no consensus among Protestants.

Other examples are Acts 2:38 and Acts 22:16. The first says, “And Peter said to them, ‘Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.’”

The second one says, “And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on his name.”

These verses agree with the words of Jesus, Titus 3:5, and the rest of the New Testament about the necessity and importance of baptism. But many Evangelicals will offer in reply a list of verses that say salvation is by faith (e.g., John 3:16) and argue that since he can find twenty-five verses that say salvation is by faith, it can’t be by baptism.

Can we cut two verses out of the Bible because we find ten others that seem to contradict? Heavens, no! We have to find a way to explain and accept both and harmonize them into a cogent theology. That is what Catholics have been doing well for two millenia.

One of the great reliefs for me as a Catholic was to read the Bible without having to set aside verses that didn’t agree with my preconceived assumptions. Catholics do not have this problem.

A Figure of a Figure? Go Figure.

Now, back to 1 Peter 3:18-21. Protestant commentaries on Scripture admit it is one of the most difficult passages of the Bible to interpret. Here is a quote from my book Crossing the Tiber:

In his recent anti-Catholic book The Gospel according to Rome, James McCarthy says that “when Peter says that ‘baptism now saves you,’ he is speaking of the typological, or symbolic, significance of baptism. . . . It [the word figure] tells us that what follows, ‘baptism now saves you,’ is a figurative illustration that complements the symbolism of a preceding figure” (331-332).

It seems he is saying that baptism is a figure of a figure instead of the fulfillment of a figure. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature offers a different and more straightforward interpretation: “Baptism, which is a fulfillment (of the type), now saves you, i.e., the saving of Noah from the flood is a . . . ‘foreshadowing’ and baptism corresponds to it [fulfills it]” (75).

McCarthy does go on to say: “This verse is part of one of the most difficult passages in the New Testament to interpret. Nevertheless, this much is clear: it does not support the Roman Catholic doctrine” (331-332). (Crossing the Tiber, p. 130, note 56)

The Catholic interpretation explains the passage quite comfortably without twisting the text from its clear meaning, accepting the literal meaning of the text, and complementing the rest of New Testament teaching. It is difficult for McCarthy to interpret because he comes to the passage with a handicap: his Fundamentalist preconceptions.

Catholics: Seen but Not Heard

Baptism is just one example, and we have only scratched the surface. Other examples of passages that are difficult for Evangelicals—and where unwary Catholics attending a non-denominational Bible study can be misled—are John 20:23, Colossians 1:24, James 2:24, Matthew 16:18-19, and John 5:28-29.

Catholics often find non-denominational Bible studies appealing because of the warm, serious, loving, and family-like environment. Being used to reverence and quiet devotion, Catholics find the welcoming and chatty nature of these gatherings refreshing and new.

But there is such a thing as an ecumenical Bible study that doesn’t allow knowledgeable Catholics to participate in leadership or where the Catholic perspective is not equally presented and discussed with respect. In a truly ecumenical Bible study, the Catholic interpretation and teaching is not treated as substandard or heretical.

Also, the Catholic Church is not a “denomination” (which means “to take a new name”); it is the Church. Those who are in schism, who break away or subsist apart from it are denominations or sects. The Church is not. It is the Church.

There’s still a long way to go to get Catholics to the point of scriptural study that Protestants have achieved. But it is happening, and you can help. For more information, see my article “Starting a Parish Bible Study” at


Before Chapter and Verse

Chapter and verse divisions in the Bible are quite recent. They have proven quite helpful in biblical study and finding our way around. But they can also be a great hindrance if people begin to see the Bible as an unrelated collection of wise maxims listed numerically. It becomes quite easy to pluck a numbered statement (a verse) out of its context and quote it as in independent entity. For the first 1,600 years of Christianity, biblical study was conducted without verse numbers, forcing the reader to see whole texts and not simply lists of unrelated sentences randomly compiled.

Bible Resources

Sites to help you find a Bible study, start a Bible study, or get Bible study materials:

A Catholic Answers booklet to help you get started reading the Bible:

Beginning Apologetics 7: How to Read the Bible by Jim Burnham and Fr. Frank Chacon (San Juan Catholic Seminars, 2003)

Books available at to help your understanding of Scripture:

A Guide to the Bible by Antonio Fuentes (Four Courts Press, 1987)

Inside the Bible by Kenneth Baker, S.J. (Ignatius Press, 1998)

You Can Understand the Bible by Peter Kreeft (Ignatius, 2005)

How to Read the Bible Every Day by Carmen Rojas (Servant Books, 1988)

Books that answer common Protestant questions:

Where Is That in the Bible? by Patrick Madrid (Our Sunday Visitor, 1999)

Where We Got the Bible by Bishop Henry G. Graham (Catholic Answers, 1997)

{ 17 comments… read them below or add one }

Kevin November 8, 2015 at 7:48 AM

Excellent overview Steve Thanks.. I stopped Going to a Protestant Groups Bible Study just too much Conflict. Even difficult to discus with Ex -Catholics..ignoring reality is tough to overcome.

Tom November 8, 2015 at 8:32 AM

While I appreciate the concern of not wanting there to be a lost sheep, what would you say of the opportunity to evangelize and share the Catholic faith with those in such a group? I have been attending a ND Bible study for a few months and, though there have been some anti-Catholic comments made (I think out of pure ignorance) there has also been some genuine curiosity about how I interpret Scripture differently they they do. I see the leader, who knows the Bible backwards and forwards, seeking more and has asked for some explanations on what I say. I’ve given him Catholicism from Fr. Barron as a jumping-off point. CTT may be next! Your thoughts?

STEVE RAY HERE: I agree completely.

Edward A. Hara November 8, 2015 at 1:29 PM

Only if you know A.) your faith backwards, forwards, and sideways. B.) the Bible inside out C.) how to be grace-filled when insulted D.) are there for the sole purpose of raising questions designed to make heretics think.

OH! I said “Heretics.” How utterly unecummenical of me! But of course, if they are not, then what’s the problem? And for that matter, why even bother converting as I did 15 years ago?

Anil Wang November 10, 2015 at 7:16 AM


Everything you say is true, however, I would not have reverted to the Catholic faith if it were not for such studies. They succeeded in teaching the basics, which I lacked, but more importantly, they taught by example why Protestantism could not possibly be true.

For instance, one day, the study focused on Ephesians 5-6. The study leaders gave an explanation of Ephesians 5 that, while not exactly my understanding, was close enough to be compatible with it. However, when feedback from the rest of the group came, I was shocked at the diversity of opinions. There were 30 people in the room and 35 (often contradictory) opinions of what it meant and on its relevance. It was maddening. What’s worse, the study leaders (who were also respected elders at the church) didn’t seem to have a principled way of shutting down wrong or outright heretical interpretations.

Then the study turned to Ephesians 6 and the study leaders conceded that the (Presbyterian) church got this one wrong in the past but we know better now. By which criteria do we know and how can we be sure that we got this and other interpretations right? There weren’t any logically consistent answers that did not contradict the orthodox interpretation of Ephesians 5.

What’s worse, if you study history you’d see that the kind of slavery that existed (essentially, bond slavery, slavery to get a better life and conquered people slavery rather than killing all combatants, which in any case could buy back their freedom as St Paul’s parents did) was not all that different in kind than modern forms of way and debt slavery. Sure modern slavery is more limited, has more protections, is more impersonal and portable, but it is not fundamentally different. So the principles outlined in Ephesians 6 still apply.

As bad as that was, the study of Genesis 1-4, was far worse. You left wondering why Genesis was even in the Bible since no-one agreed on what it meant. Granted, these disaster bible studies were the exception, not the rule, but they happened with enough frequency to make me realize that something was fundamentally wrong about sola scriptura, even though I didn’t know an alternative at the time.

Joe Jones May 20, 2017 at 11:27 PM

I’m not sure of many conservative protestants would agree with the idea of an “ecumenical” Bible study since they are generally against the ecumenical movement.

The Church is, unfortunately, the largest group on earth pushing ecumenicalism. Results have been great, haven’t they?

Bill 912 May 21, 2017 at 6:00 PM

Joe Jones, please define what you mean by “the ecumenical movement”.

Pete August 26, 2019 at 8:54 AM

Until you know the difference between the Catholic view of the atonement and that of the most Evangelical Protestants (sacrificial atonement vs. penal substitutionary atonement) you better not go near a non-Catholic Bible study, which is not to say that there are not Catholic Bible studies that are probably worse!

MrsBridge August 27, 2019 at 1:49 PM

I belonged to a Presbyterian (PCA, conservative) study group before seriously rejoining the Catholic Church after many years on the fringe. I dropped the study group at that time but missed my friends. You can go to a Catholic parish for many months and no one will say hello.

After about a year, I rejoined my study group. We are all kind of old ladies now and most of the conversations (“prayer requests”) are about illnesses and concerns for children and grandchildren. I don’t think the bible study itself has hurt me. I’ve had a good dose of salvation history, along with some peculiar readings of the Book of Revelation which I understand to be peculiar and leads me to avoid apocalyptic, end-times literature of all types.

It’s interesting to me that in all my years in this study group, there has not been a single study of a Gospel. Old Testament and epistles, yes. Gospel stories, no. (Well, okay, we studied the Parables recently.) The other day I was in the car with one of my bible ladies discussing a personal issue of hers. “Sufficient to the day are the troubles thereof,” I said. “Who said that?” she asked. “Jesus,” I told her. Sometimes I think these Protestant bible studies know more about Ruth and Boaz than they know about Mary and Martha. Catholics aren’t all that far behind where it counts.

Peter Anthony Roland August 28, 2019 at 3:53 AM

Great Article Steve..

Ronald Sevenster August 28, 2019 at 1:53 PM

The best Bible studies catholics could attend as visitors are Jewish Bible studies under the direction of an orthodox Rabbi. That’s the only setting where one finds a meticulous approach of the text combined to the principles of tradition and a competent interpreting authority.

Father Khouri September 12, 2019 at 12:27 PM

Very simply, No, No, No!
Find a Catholic one or step up and start one after speaking to your priest. Quit being lazy!

Frank V Mazzoni September 12, 2019 at 4:08 PM

At my first Catholic Men's Conference 3 Years ago The Keynote Speaker made it perfectly clear that non
Catholic Christians can attain Spiritual Heaven with Christ, so what's the Point .

STEVE RAY HERE: One thing for sure I wasn’t the speaker at that conference. He was either very wrong or somehow the context was missed, but I understand your frustration Frank.

Donald Link September 12, 2019 at 6:54 PM

As a person whose competence is history by education and avocation, I would recommend staying away from all of these study groups unless they are strictly historical and not theological. Very little is accomplished in what are essentially religious professions of belief and rarely lead to anything other than confusion. Oddly enough, I have found more explanation of religious history in the context of educational presentations on various television programs organized by reputable historians. They almost never inject doctrine into the presentation unless necessary to explain an event and don’t take a theological position. Thus it is possible to study the events of both the old and new testaments and allow viewers to relate it to their own churches as they see fit. One of the earliest attempts at this approach was the book Ben-Hur by General Lew Wallace. A current film on the travels of St. Paul is a more up to date approach.

Peter Aiello September 13, 2019 at 6:03 AM

Salvation is not by a choice of faith or Baptism because the sacraments presuppose faith. Vatican II, in Sacrosanctum Concilium 59, says of the sacraments: "They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it; that is why they are called 'sacraments of faith'".
The family of Cornelius received the Holy Spirit before they were baptized (Acts 10:44-48).

STEVE RAY HERE: Thanks for your comment Peter. God bless you. Just a simple addition:

Salvation is neither a choice or baptism, it is rather a choice, faith and baptism. Don’t forget that the Holy Spirit falling on Cornelius is the only time that it proceded baptism because God had to impress on Peter that Gentiles could be saved by faith (and not be circumcised first) and Peter’s reaction proves this point. Salvation comes through “coming to a knowledge of the truth” (1 Tim 2:4), faith, choice and baptism. In my book Crossing the Tiber on page 100 I compiled this list:

One last comment, even though it will be discussed in more detail later: there is no attempt here to pit baptism against faith, or belief against baptism. Things are rarely that simple. Faith and baptism are two sides of the same coin. Are we saved by faith or by baptism? Are we saved by believing or by the Spirit? These are false dichotomies that should have no place in our thinking.
How does one receive salvation, justification, new birth, and eternal life?

By believing in Christ (Jn 3:16; Acts 16:31)?
By repentance (Acts 2:38; 2 Pet 3:9)?
By baptism (Jn 3:5; 1 Pet 3:21; Titus 3:5)?
By the work of the Spirit (Jn 3:5; 2 Cor 3:6)?
By declaring with our mouths (Lk 12:8; Rom 10:9)?
By coming to a knowledge of the truth (1 Tim 2:4; Heb 10:26)?
By works (Rom 2:6, 7; James 2:24)?
By grace (Acts 15:11; Eph 2:8)?
By his blood (Rom 5:9; Heb 9:22)?
By his righteousness (Rom 5:17; 2 Pet 1:1)?
By his Cross (Eph 2:16; Col 2:14)?

Can we cut any one of these out of the list and proclaim it alone as the means of salvation? Can we be saved without faith? without God’s grace? without repentance? without baptism? without the Spirit? These are all involved and necessary; not one of them can be dismissed as a means of obtaining eternal life. Neither can one be emphasized to the exclusion of another. They are all involved in salvation and p 101 entry into the Church. The Catholic Church does not divide these various elements of salvation up, overemphasizing some while ignoring others; rather, she holds them all in their fullness.

Stephen K. Ray, Crossing the Tiber: Evangelical Protestants Discover the Historical Church (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1997), 100–101.

Elizabeth H. September 13, 2019 at 8:56 AM

The tenants "Scripture alone" and "Faith Alone" are actually very anti-Catholic, and they don't even realize this for the most part. These tenants are strongly held by Protestant denominations. Protestants have no regard or understanding of Sacred Tradition and the teaching authority of the Church, so engaging in Bible study with them is problematic from the start. I know as I was involved in "mixed-denomination" Bible study for several years. In one session we were challenged to mention someone from the Bible who "stepped out of the boat." I of course mentioned Our Blessed Mother, Mary. To my surprise, a Presbyterian member of the group came to my defense and said that "God prepared Mary's heart". I guess that was his way of interpreting the Immaculate Conception. It gave me hope that maybe one day there will be unity with our separated Protestant brothers and sisters. Invite a Protestant to attend your Catholic Bible study. They need to know that the Catholic Church holds the fullness of the Truth.

STEVE RAY HERE: Thanks Elizabeth!!

Betsy September 13, 2019 at 8:19 PM

I have been attending an “informal” evangelical bible study…and I started showing YOUR videos..The Footprints of God. They Loved THOSE…and kept asking me to continue!

Steve Ray September 13, 2019 at 8:30 PM

Betsy, that is marvelous. Good for you. It must be an unusual Protestant Bible study because normally that would not be too acceptable. Keep up the good work!

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